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If you have heard about the name Iduu and you asked or wondered what it is really the meaning of Iduu you are not alone. Below we explained all you need to know about Iduu kingdom.
What is the meaning of IDUU
Idu has a complex of meanings. It usually refers to Benin, but not in all cases. Agaba Idu literally means Great Lion. It is a name used by Igbo masquerades.
Iduu is also one of the titles of the Attah of Igala. Idu or iduu can equally mean a crowd or a bush.
In the context of Iduu Eri, the reference is to a crowd of people, i.e., Iduu Eri = Eri’s horde/ Eri’s people. To buttress, among the people of the Omambala basin, they have a tradition of epic storytelling, and the storyteller will sometimes refer to his crowd of listeners as “Iduu’.
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Also in the modernized version of the story of Ojaadili, also from the Omambala people, there is a reference to him travelling to ‘Iduu Kamerun’ (which in this case might mean something along the lines of the forests of Cameroun.)
Now what is Iduu in the context of its origin
n a landmark article, published in 2010, entitled “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, the renowned journalist and historian, C. XRYDZ-EYUTCHAE, quoting the famous Senegalese Egyptologist and Philosopher, Cheikh Anta Dio, said, inter alia:
“It was Professor Anta Diop of Senegal who observed that ethnic groups often do not realize the extent to which they share kinship with the language, culture, traditions and historical socio-political structures, evolved by communities they have come to view as rivals. Indeed ethnic groups tend to see themselves as self-enclosed communities. But as an example, are the Luluas of Kenya aware of their kingship with the Luluas of Senegal?” – (Cited in C. XRYDZ-EYUTCHAE, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas” (Published in Aguleriworldforum.com (Sunday, 27 June, 2010).
C. X. Eyutchae’s article, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, is gem in its own right. The article is based on the most recent scholarship as well as historical and archeological evidences about the ancient town of Aguleri in Anambra State as the ancestral home of the Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns and Binis (of Igodo-migodo Kingdom). Eyutchae’s article also presents ‘Iduu-Eri Kingdom’ as the original unifying name of all these descendants (ethnic-groups) that trace their ancestral origins to the legendary itinerary, Eri.
As historical and oral traditions have it, the children of Eri and those of his brothers and others, first settled and lived together as one people along the basin of the confluence of Anambra and Ezu Rivers at the present-day ancient town of Aguleri and environs, about 5000 years ago.
The article of C.X. Eyutchae merits special attention and study at this particular time in our history. Especially, since a good number of our younger population from the Old Eastern and some parts of Middle Belt regions and Ancient Bini (Igodo-migodo) Kingdom, in the present day Nigeria, are etching to know more about how they are ancestrally, culturally, and historically related as one people, but now speaking different dialects and tongues.
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Eyutchae’s article, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, is our point of departure in the present article. The aim of our present article is twofold. Firstly, to show that ‘Ime-Iduu’ Kingdom (Obodo-Iduu) with its headquarters (ancient settlement) at Aguleri, Anambra State, is the ancestral home of not only the Igbos, but also the Igalas, Jukuns and Binis (Igodo-migodo Kingdom). Secondly, the article intends to demonstrate that ‘Iduu Kingdom’ (Obodo-Iduu), was the original name of all these (ethnic) groups, Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns, Binis, among others.
Aguleri is the Ancestral Home of All the Descendants of Iduu-Eri Kingdom
Eyutchae was referring to Aguleri town in Anambra state as the ancestral home of all the descendants of Ime-Iduu Kingdom, in his article cited above, “Anambra is the ancestral home of the Igalas.” As he puts it:
“Waves of migrants led by Eri settled at Anambra River basin, establishing the ancient Iduu Ime KINGDOM at Aguleri. Historical traditions relate that his progenitors included Agulu [eri] (first son of Eri from who were descended the Aguleri), Menri (from who were descended the Nri), Igbo, Igala, Oba (from who descended the Binis (Igodo-migodo), Enuike and a daughter, Ulu-uwa. … Igbo, an itinerant missionary acquired large Iduu followers who became known as Igbo people thus losing their Iduu identity just as followers of Christ are called Christians whether they came from Rome, London or Bonn.” – (C. XRYDZ-EYUTCHAE, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, p. 1).
Continuing, Eyutchae, writes:
“By the same token how many of us in Nigeria are aware that Anambra State is the ancestral home of the Igalas, Ngwas, Jukuns and Binis? Yet it remains historically true that Anambra State is the birth place of the founding fathers of Bendel (present Edo and Delta States), Imo and Benue States. Hence in language classification these separated people speak a common language which forms part of Kwa group of West African languages.” – (Ibid.)
As I wrote elsewhere, in an earlier article, entitled, “Igbo Claim of Ancestral Link with Israel”, “although, there are still debates. However, recent archaeological evidences showed about the migration of Eri and his entourage (the progenitor of the Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns and Binis), from the South of the Nile to the confluence of the Niger, from where they sailed down Anambra River to settle at Eri-Aka in the present day town of Aguleri about 5000 years.”
Among Eri’s entourage when he first arrived at Eri-Aka in Aguleri about 5000 years ago, were also his two younger brothers: Arodi, and Areli, and their descendants, among others. When they arrived, they met there in the land, the ancient people (ndi gboo) in and around the vicinity, and together with them, established the Ime-Iduu Eri Kingdom, from which descended the present people known as Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns and Binis, among others.
Eri, Arodi, and Areli – the three brothers, are till day, venerated together, as the ancestral founders and progenitors of Ndigbo in South Eastern Nigeria and of these other groups, Igalas, Jukuns, and Binis. The three brothers, Eri, Arodi, and Areli first established at Aguleri. However, some years later, Arodi and Areli, and some others advanced further into other parts of the present-day hinterland in Eastern Nigeria and some parts of the Middle Belt and ancient Bini Kingdom of the country, where all these people are found today in Nigeria and some parts of West Africa, etc.
Eri, as the eldest and leader of the group, remained at Aguleri, established his abode there, later died, and was buried at Aguleri. Both Arodi and Areli were also buried at Aguleri. They were buried at ‘Obuga’ Palace Shrine at Enugu village, Aguleri. The famous “Trinity-Iroko-Tree” at Obuga Shrine, Enugu Aguleri, still standing there today, grew up on top of their tombs. This is the ‘mystery’ behind the “Sacred Trinity-Iroko-Tree”, which have been standing there for over five millennia years, till date. It is today one of the most cherished archeological sites and pilgrimage centers in the ancient town of Aguleri.
Again, there are varied versions of the composition of children and entourage of Eri when he first, landed in Aguleri. Although, there is a debate, however, according to Aguleri version of the story, Eri had six direct sons and one daughter. The six direct sons of Eri in order of seniority are: Aguleri, Igbariam, Nteje, Amanuke, Nsugbue and Nri. The only daughter of Eri was named Adamgbo. She was a very beautiful woman and dear to Eri. Adamgbo married and had a son whom Eri named Uli-Eri ((the founder of Umuleri (Umueri), and a daughter named Iguedo, the mother and founder of other towns in the Anambra/Oyi River valleys: Awkuzu, Ogbunike, Umunya, Nando, and others. Aguleri people are related to all these towns since they all have a common progenitor. Aguleri is the most senior and patient eldest brother of all the children of Eri.
The youngest son of Eri, Menri (Nri) was a priest. He and his family migrated into the Igbo hinterlands. Menri’s children established at Nri and later expanded into other Umu-Nri towns in Igbo hinterlands. According to the local legends, the descendants of these towns and those that migrated later from their ancestral home at Aguleri along Anambra River Basin, became founders of other towns and villages in what is known today as Igboland, Igalaland, Jukunland, and Binis (Igodo-migodo), Idomaland, among others.
The traditions of the Umu-Eri clan, which includes the ancient state of Nri, show that both they and Igala are descended from a still more ancient community in the Anambra valley, and that is Aguleri. Writing on this, Elizabeth Isichie says:
“We are all descendants from Eri; but Igala went one way, Agukwu another, Amanuke another, Nteje another and Igbariam another. This separation of Igala from us happened so long ago that now we do not understand Igala, nor can they understand our language.”
M.A. Onwuejegwu, in his book, An Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom and Hegemony (1981), writes that “the children of Eri migrated: Ogbodudu from Aguleri to Amanuke; Onogu to Igbariam; Onoja to Igala; Iguedo to Umuleri, Nando, Awkuzu, Nteje, Ogbunike and Nsugbue. Agulu as the first son of Eri remained at Aguleri. Each settlement then followed its own existence and development owing allegiance to Aguleri, where their collective ancestral temple remains.”
This collective ancestral temple is the Obuga palace square in Enugwu Aguleri. Obuga (Obu-Ga) is a temple dedicated to the memory of Gad, the father of Eri. For the Aguleri people, Obu-Ga is the “home of Ga”. Obu means home and “Ga” is the owner of the home. The word “Ga” is the Igbo rendering of Gad. “Gad is one of the twelve sons of Israel, the father of Eri (father of Aguleri), who is the founder of Iduu-Eri Kingdom. Inside the “Obu-Ga” shrine, archaeologists have recently discovered some inscriptions in old Hebrew language, representing the twelve tribes of Israel.”
It is also claimed that kingship and chieftaincy institutions in Igbo land originated in Aguleri. Onwuejeogwu confirms this fact. According to him, Agulu-Eri (the first son of Eri), who remained in his father’s ancestral home was given the royal sceptre (staff) called Odudu-Eze by Eri and so became the king and spiritual rule of Ime Iduu (Igbo) Kingdom around 4500 years ago. This is one of the major reasons the Eze Nri before his coronation must go to Aguleri to obtain odudu Eze (Royal sceptre).
The Bible mentioned Eri (the progenitor of Ndigbo, Igalas, Jukuns and Binis (Igodo-migodo), as one of the sons of Gad, who was one of the twelve sons of Israel (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:16). This is a common myth among Aguleri natives, and indeed, Igbo people in general. It is confirmed by oral traditions, archaeological evidences, and biblical testimonies about the migration and settlement of Eri with his entourage at a place near Anambra River, later called Aguleri. The people go on to confirm this conviction by appealing to the many identical cultural and religious elements practiced among the Jews and the Igbo (See Book of Leviticus, among other Books of the Bible).
Writing on this, M.A. Onwuejeogwu, the renowned Igbo historian (from Ibusa, Delta Igbo), says:
“Oral tradition in Aguleri has it that Aguleri originated from Eri, a man sent down from the sky to rule mankind. He came down at Omabala/Ezu (Anambra) River confluence and finally settled in a place called Eri-Aka in Aguleri. The earth was not as firm as it is today when he came to the earth. His authority to rule and his power over men, were derived from God. This is the reason why Aguleri is regarded as the cradle of Igbo civilization.” – (M.A. Onwuejeogwu, cited in Elizabeth Isichei (ed.), “Igbo Worlds” (London, 1977).
Among the Igbo, the first son is usually, called “AGU” (Lion). The name Aguleri means “Agu-uli-Eri. Which loosely translates, “Eri’s first ‘adorned’ son.” The European missionaries when they first came to the town could not easily pronounce the word, “Aguleri.” So, they called it, “GLORIA IGBO.”
Again, the youngest son of Eri, named Menri (Nri) was a priest. He and his family migrated into the Igbo hinterlands. Menri’s children established at Nri and later expanded into other “Umunri” towns in Igbo hinterland. As we saw before, according to local legends, the descendants of Eri and the descendants of Arodi and Areli (younger brothers of Eri), migrated later from Anambra River Basin to become founders of other towns and villages in what we know today as Igboland, Igalaland, Jukunland, and the ancient Bini Kingdom.
In this regard, the renowned African/Igbo historian, Elizabeth Isichei writes:
“One branch of the children of Eri (Umueri), became the people of Nri, whose travelling ritual experts travelled far afield in Igboland, purifying communities of evils, and proclaiming a distinctive ethos of peace. The antiquity of all this can be gauged by the fact that superb works of art in bronze and other media have been discovered very near Nri, and have been dated to the ninth century.” – (E. Isichei, “Entirely for God: The Life of Cyprian Michael Tansi”, (2, 1980).
In addition, the traditions of “Umu-Eri” clan in general, which includes the ancient state of Nri, show that both they and Igala are descended from a still more ancient community in the Anambra valley, and that is Aguleri. Writing on this, Isichei says:
“We are all descendants from Eri; but Igala went one way, Agukwu another, Amanuke another, Nteje another and Igbariam another. This separation of Igala from us happened so long ago that now we do not understand Igala, nor can they understand our language.” – (E. Isichei (ed.), “Igbo Worlds” (1977).
M.A. Onwuejeogwu, also in his book, “An Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom and Hegemony”, writes:
“The children of Eri migrated: Ogbodudu from Aguleri to Amanuke; Onogu to Igbariam; Onoja to Igala; Iguedo to Umuleri, Nando, Awkuzu, Ogbunike, and Nsugbue, [Oba to Bini (Igodo-migodo)], etc. Agulu as the first son of Eri remained at Aguleri. Each settlement then followed its own existence and development owing allegiance to Aguleri, where their collective ancestral temple remains.” – (M.A. Onwuejeogwu, “An Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom and Hegemony” (1981).
The collective ancestral temple is the “Obuga” Palace “sacred Shrine” located at Enugwu village, Aguleri. Obuga is the collective ancestral temple of Aguleri people, and indeed, the whole of Igboland, Igalaland, Jukunland, Bini (Igodo-migodo). It is the most “sacred and oldest traditional shrine” (Temple) in Aguleri (Igboland) and the entire ancient Iduu-Eri Kingdom.
Obuga is where the founding fathers of Ndigbo and the entire Iduu-Eri Kingdom lived, were buried and are venerated (namely, Eri, Arodi, and Areli). It is a temple dedicated to the memory of Gad, the father of Eri, Arodi and Areli. For Aguleri people, “Obu-Ga” is the “home of Ga.” Obu means home and “Ga” is the owner of the home. The word “Ga” is the Igbo rendering of Gad.
Iduu-Eri Kingdom Was the Original Name of Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns and Binis
Referring to the Tradition of some descendants of Eri, such as Menri, C.X. Eyutchae mentioned how Menri (last son of Eri) established a priestly kingdom at Nri known for purification ceremonies and coronation of tributary of Iduu Ime kingdom. Hence, the Eze Nri Obalike (Nri kings (1989-1935) in the first decade of the 20th century told the Government Anthropologist, Northcote Thomas, that the area subject to him was Iduu. On the same matter, Lawton wrote:
“A marked feature of this (Nri) tribe is its hostility to the European, natural enough, when it is remembered that prior to the British, the Obalike was Eze Nri and crowned the kings of Benin and presided over all the religious observation of surrounding peoples”. – (Emphasis is mine).
It was the tradition that coronation titles were usually conferred on tributary kings by the ancestral Iduu Ime kingdom which also assigned to each a General as head of the palace guards. The ‘Odudu-eze’ royal scepter which every ‘Eze Nri’ to be, must receive from the ancestral Iduu Ime kingdom, Aguleri before coronation as Eze-Nri (king and priest), is also largely for this purpose. Through the ‘Odudu-eze’, the Eze Nri is empowered by the spirits of ancestors of Ime-Iduu-Eri Kingdom buried at Obuga Palace Shrine, Aguleri, to perform certain important traditional functions throughout the Iduu Kingdom. One of which, is the coronation of tributary Kings by the Eze Nri himself, among other sundry traditional functions associated with his office. This is why the candidate for Eze Nri, before his coronation must spend at least three native Igbo weeks at Obuga Shrine Aguleri, from where he would be accompanied by an emissary of Eze-Ora Iduu-Eri Kingdom to Nri for his coronation, with the ‘Odudu-eze.’
Writing on this, C.X. Eyutchae, writes:
“Hence, in honour of their ancestor, Atta the ruler of Igala was titled Atta of Igala. The founders of Benin were the descendants of Oba Eri whose habitation was Ugwu-Ogodo where exists today, the Ogodo spring in Umuleri, near Aguleri. Hence, the Binis in modem times still trace their ancestry of “Igodo” a corruption of Ogodo, an Igbo word for elevated place. Hence, the first king of Benin, Iweka (anglicized to Eweka) was titled Oba in honour of their ancestor, Oba Eri. Eweka is English spelling of Iweka just as the letter E in England is pronounced I, This name Iweka an Igbo name in full means Iweka n’uno. It reflected the internal feud at the time the-would-be king was born. His second name was Edoziuno, Edo for short, meaning peace maker, thus was derived Edo Kingdom.” – (C. XRYDZ-EYUTCHAE, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, pp. 1-2).
Going further in his analysis, C. X. Eyutchae tells us that from Archeological discoveries at Ugwuele near Okigwe dating their existence to some ages it follows that “the Igbos were descendants of the first men of earth now traced to the Oduvai Gorge in East Africa.”
“In historical literature, the Igbos, originally known as Iduus had their territorial distribution covering South west of the African continent, later converging at the whole of the low lying land mass North and South of the Niger and Benue river confluence, down the Niger and Anambra River basins, right down to the Niger Delta and westward to River Okpara beyond Lagos as shown in Rev. Johnson’s map in his history of the Yorubas. Later the low land dwellers were characterized as the Olu and the highlanders as the Igbo.” – (Ibid.)
The name Benin itself was a corruption of the Igbo words. ‘llo obi inu’, meaning a place of bitter mindedness, again reflecting the quarrelsomeness of the people at that time over kingship disputes. “To the first Benin king was assigned General Ado from Iduu Ime as head of his palace guards. According to the tradition of the people, Egbunike, the founding father of the Ogbunikes has three brothers, Awkuzu, Umuleri and Nando and a sister, Nwonicha. The children of General Ado who was assigned to the Oba of Benin, married Nwonicha and the marriage resulted in such progenies as Onitsha Ado, Ado Ekiti etc.”
The Ogbunikes and their brothers, Awkuzu, Umuleri, and Nando and a sister, Nwonicha, are generally, regarded in the history of immediate children of Eri, as the descendants of Amamgbo, the only daughter of Eri, and her powerful daughter Iguedo (umu Iguedo in the present Anambra State).
Furthermore, Eyutchae speaks of how marriage contracts among the children of different descendants of Iduu-Eri Kingdom helped in maintaining their ancestral and cultural affinities. For example, according to Eyutchae, “The Marriage formed the basis of the link between Ogbunike and Onitsha, thus giving the historical background to the Igbo adage which says: “Afuzi Onicha, Ogbunike ewelu,” meaning in the absence of Onitsha, Ogbunike takes its turn. When therefore Eze Chima, a descendant of General Ado in his flight with others, first from Benin, then from Agbor, named his son Onitsha, in honour of their maternal ancestors, and established Onitsha Ugbo and Onitsha Olona and the entire Umu Ezechima being referred to as Onitsha Ado, the origin of nomenclature cannot therefore be in serious doubt.”
Likewise, the Igalas who are descendants of Atta Eri had their ancestral home in Aguleri in the area of Ama Atta (Atta-in-the-fields). Igala was said to be the father of Ikem and was reputed to have such descendants as Omor, Omasi and Umuneke. The Ikems had sometimes settled in Umukete Aguleri, whose descendants were supposed to be the Ikem of Nando, Ikems in Nsukka, Ikems in Onitsha and other areas.
Furthermore, it is relevant to note that in a preliminary statement on the excavation made in Aguleri by the Department of History and Archaeology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Dr. F.N. Anozie said that the excavation took place at a site known as “Okpuno Igala”; and that is known to everybody including school children in Aguleri as a deserted Igala settlement. He said, “There were sites with walls, one deserted and the other still inhabited by a group of Aguleri people, who during the author’s filed work in the area said they had blood relations with the Igalas. At the approach is the Ama Atta which seemed to have once been a village square. Almost at the centre of the enclosure is a mound known as “Ukpo eze” (king’s throne” and North -East of the mound is the Owelle Atta (toilet area) and Ajo Agu Atta (cemetery).”
The present Umukete people in Aguleri who claim blood relationship with the Igala people have their village walled, and traces of the wall could still be seen today. “When an elderly man from this group was asked by excavators from the University the relationship between them and the Igalas, he said that the father of Igala and Igbo were sons of the same parents and that whenever anybody from Umukete went to Idah he normally would go to greet the Atta or the King. The greeting usually went as follows: “Ata abikibo bie takata bie Igala” which translates the lgbo saying that “Igbo is senior to Atta and Atta begot lgala. This is also reflected in the lgbo saying that: lgbo mulu Atta, mana Atta mulu lgala.” This oneness of lgbo and lgala is also reflected in lgbo adage which says “Alusi lgbo jebe mbana, obulu, alusi obodo lgala”, which interprets that the spirits of lgbo-land in transit constitutes the spirit of lgalaland. Those who still doubt the common ancestry of lgbo and lgala could refresh their memory with this popular lgbo adage which says, ” Egbusia lgbo nine, lgbo afodukwa na lgala”, meaning even if all lgbos are wiped out of existence, the lgbos still remain in lgalaland. As with lgala, so is ldoma, who still have remnants of ancestors of ldoma community in Aguleri.”
The oral tradition also has it that Aku was the fourth son of Agulu (Aguleri), whose pregnancy were the Jukuns. “The Jukuns as a result of their assertion of their monarchical sovereignty moved North-East of the Middle Belt area. They adopted a kingship tradition that is based on the lgbo abuana (puffada) life cycle. As the puff ada is said never gives birth naturally, but that the young ones bores through its mother which dies in process, the Jukuns kings live very short lives, dying untimely after about seven years when there are signs of maturity of a successor.”
The Jukuns greet their kings after his coronation as Agaba Iduu meaning” Iduu Field Marshal whereas in their ancestral lduu land, Agaba Iduu does not refer to the king but to a war lord. Traditionally, the Jukun king’s title is Annum Agaba or Ojogwu Oji Agaba. The Jukun separation from Iduu kingship tradition followed the battle of Nando waged against their relations, the Aguleris. It ended in the Jukuns settling up coronation spot in Wukari. Thus, the Nandos in Wukari, in the Middle Belt are presumed to be relations to Ikem, son of lgala in Benue State, and the Nandos in the present Anambra Local Government Area.
According to oral traditions and historical evidences, the war of succession from lduu Kingdom was initiated by the Oba of Benin known in lgbo historical literature as Agha lduu na Oba (war of the lduu and Oba). “It was a protracted war that touched most lgbo areas. It was intensified when the Benins acquired arms from the Portuguese. Then followed the war of secession of lgala initiated by the Atta. General Ogbe the son of Ajide attacked him at ldah, and was supported by General Udenze who controlled the Anam riverine area. Onoja Nwoboli left Aguleri and joined the lgalas because he was one of the remnants of the lgala descendants still at their Aguleri ancestral home.” – (C. XRYDZ-EYUTCHAE, “Anambra is the Ancestral Home of the Igalas”, p. 3.)
All these caused protracted disturbances that in one way or the other, and affected the entire ancient Iduu-Eri Kingdom. General Onoja was stopped at Ogurugu from pushing Southward by General Enewelue who founded the Anyamelum area and part of Nsukka districts. But some remnant of lgala at Aguleri loyal to Atta created disturbances at their Aguleri ancestral home which made a section of Okpuno Nri, to move in a hysteria of haste to the present Imo State where they settled as Ngwas, a name reflecting the nature of the hurry (ngwa ngwa) with which they fled.
Okpuno Nris were made up of Okpu-enu, Okpu-ana and Aro. “From the Okpuno dynasty came Disi Nri whose descendants founded Abacha named after their leader, Ikendu Abacheleku, in the present Idemili Local Government Area. There the principal village is Umudisi. Their ancestral home is Umudisi village at Ikenga Aguleri. Of the Okpuno elements comprising Okpuenu, Okpuana and Aro, the Okpuana people during the lgala disturbances left in a hurry hence their present settlement is known as Okpuala Ngwa. In remembrance of their ancestral structure and traditions during the Annual get-together of the Ngwas of Okpuala, they usually went on a pilgrimage to Okpuno Ngwa.”
The two most respected, renowned Igbo historians, Isichei and Onwuejeogwu confirmed, each, in his/her own way, C.X. Eyutchae’s founding story of Igbo nation in its relation to the entire Iduu-Eri Kingdom history and ancestral origins. These authors confirmed that Aguleri is the ancestral home of the Igbos, Igalas, Jukuns, Binis (Igodo-migodo Kingdom), among others. They confirm how related, ancestrally, culturally and historically, all these people of the ancient Iduu-Eri Kingdom are. They also confirm their (Igbo) claim to ancestral link with the founding Patriarch of Israel as well as the culture of dispersal identity found among each of these nations. (See Elizabeth Isichei (ed.), “Igbo World” (1977); M.A. Onwuejeogwu, “An Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom and Hegemony” (1981).
The findings of these authors and experts of the history and ancestral origins of the children of Iduu-Eri Kingdom will no doubt, go a long way in cementing the already existing friendship and good neighborly relationship among the people themselves. It shows equally, how these peoples – ethnic-groups (most of whom live in the Old Eastern, Mid-Western and Middle Belt regions of Nigeria), are related, ancestrally, culturally, and historically.
It is hoped that the findings of these authors will help in promoting better understanding, sense of brotherhood, spirit of reconciliation, unity and fraternal love among the people themselves, as brothers and sisters who share common ancestry origin, culture and history.
Fr. Francis Anekwe Oborji is a Roman Catholic Priest, is Professor Ordinarius of contextual theology at the Pontifical Urbaniana University, Rome.